A pair of binoculars resting on a table outside.

How to Choose Binoculars for Birdwatching: Expert Guide!

Welcome to our expert guide on how to choose binoculars for birdwatching! Binoculars are an essential tool for birdwatchers, allowing you to observe birds up close and in detail.

In this comprehensive guide, we’ll walk you through everything you need to know to select the perfect pair of binoculars for your birdwatching adventures.

From understanding magnification and lens specifications to considering features like weight and durability, we’ll cover it all.

Whether you’re a beginner or seasoned birder, this guide will help you make an informed decision and enhance your birdwatching experience.

How to Choose Binoculars for Birdwatching?

A Guide to Magnification and Objective Lens Size 

Bird watching is an incredibly rewarding hobby. Being able to observe birds in their natural habitat provides us with a unique opportunity to appreciate the beauty of nature, as well as learn more about our feathered friends. However, it’s important that you have the right tools if you want to make the most out of bird watching – namely binoculars. 

But which ones should you choose? It all depends on your needs; this guide will help you determine which pair of binoculars best suits your bird watching requirements – specifically when it comes to magnification and objective lens size. 

Magnification is one of the most important factors in choosing a pair of binoculars for bird watching, as it controls how much detail can be seen from a distance. Generally speaking, higher magnification means better image quality – but there are some tradeoffs too. 

For example, higher magnifications require larger objective lenses (which makes them heavier), and greater magnifications also result in reduced field of view (FOV). As such, we recommend selecting a magnification somewhere between 8x and 10x; this range should provide enough power without sacrificing portability or FOV too much. 

Objective lens size refers to the diameter of each glass element inside your binoculars; bigger objectives generally allow for more light transmission – resulting in brighter images at high magnifications – but they also come with downsides such as increased weight & bulkiness. 

We suggest using an objective lens size no smaller than 42 mm so that you can get good performance across different lighting conditions; however, if budget allows then 50 mm or even 56 mm lenses would be ideal since they offer improved brightness and resolution while remaining relatively lightweight & portable compared with larger sizes like 70+ mm objectives. 

Magnification Power

This is probably one of the most important aspects when choosing any type of optical instrument like binoculars or telescopes – they need enough “power” (magnification strength) to view distant objects clearly at distances far away from where they’re being used by viewers looking through them with their eyesight alone; otherwise known as “exit pupil” or “field stop” size measurements in millimeters (mm). 

Generally speaking higher magnifications won’t necessarily guarantee better performance but too low magnifications won’t do either; try aiming somewhere between 8x – 10x power range which should work well enough under most circumstances without sacrificing image quality due to its relatively wide field-of-view capabilities compared to more powerful lenses available on other models such as 12x – 16x variations etc.

Binoculars are typically labeled with two numbers, such as 8×42 or 10×50; the first number represents how much larger a distant object appears when viewed through the binocular compared to looking at it with your naked eye – this is known as “magnification power”. 

For general use, 7 to 10x magnification works well; if you need more powerful magnification than consider 12x or higher models, but remember that they may be heavier and more difficult to hold steady while viewing birds in flight etc. 

Lens Size

The larger objective lens sizes tend to gather more light than smaller ones, resulting in brighter images even under low light conditions, which makes them ideal choices if planning on using these instruments during twilight hours near sunset/dawn times.

However, bear in mind that bigger isn’t always better since heavier lenses may cause fatigue over extended periods of use, especially when carrying around equipment frequently while walking/hiking long distances outdoors etc., opt instead for something lighter yet still capable, providing adequate, power.

Understanding Field of View 

Birdwatching is a wonderful activity that allows you to observe the beauty and wonders of nature. But in order to truly appreciate your feathered friends, you need a tool that can bring them up close and personal – binoculars! 

While there are many factors to consider when selecting binoculars for bird watching, one of the most important criteria is field of view (FOV). In this blog post, we’ll cover what FOV is, why it matters when choosing binoculars for birding, and how to pick out the right pair. 

What Is Field Of View? 

Field of view (FOV) refers to how much of an area you can see through your lenses at any given time. It’s measured in feet at 1000 yards or meters at 1000 meters. The higher the FOV number, the wider range you have available with your optics. 

For example, if two sets have an 8x magnification power, but one has a 400-foot FOV while another has only 300-foot FOV – then clearly having more FOV will give you better views over greater distances as it offers more width within each image frame. 

Why Does Field Of View Matter When Choosing Binoculars For Bird Watching? 

Having a high field of view makes finding distant birds easier, as they become larger objects on screen instead of small dots in far away places; so being able to spot them quickly becomes possible from further away than usual – meaning less effort spent trying to track them down! 

Additionally, larger fields also make panning across large areas simpler – so sweeping trees or skylines won’t be nearly as tedious compared to using lower powered optics with narrower fields which require constant readjustment due to their limited coverage capabilities and lack thereof when looking around corners etc.

Choose The Right Pair Of Binoculars With A High Field Of View For Bird Watching?

When shopping around for binoculars specifically intended for bird watching purposes, keep these following tips in mind: First – always check out what different manufacturers offer by way of specifications such as optical performance ratings. 

Such as light gathering ability (measured in millimeters), exit pupil size (in mm), eye relief distance from eyepiece lens surface (also known as eye relief) along with other relevant features like adjustable diopters/prisms etcetera… 

Lastly, don’t forget about comparing respective magnifications against each other’s corresponding viewing angles; this should help,

Understanding Eye Relief 

When you’re out bird watching, there’s nothing quite like the thrill of spotting a rare species through your binoculars. But, in order to get the best experience possible and truly appreciate the beauty of nature, it’s essential that you choose the right binoculars – and that includes understanding eye relief. 

Eye relief is an important part of choosing binoculars for bird watching because it determines how comfortable they are to use. Put simply, eye relief is the distance from your eyes to where you can see a full field-of-view through your lenses without having to strain or move them away from your face. 

It’s especially important if you wear glasses since vision correction lenses may prevent you from getting close enough with normal eyepieces; this means that those who already have vision impairments need extra long eye relief, so they don’t have any issues when looking through their glasses. 

The great news is that most binocular manufacturers will list an individual model’s eye relief on their packaging or website description, giving customers an idea of what length works best for them before making a purchase. 

However, as a general rule-of-thumb, keep in mind that most models should provide at least 10 mm (millimeters) worth of space between each lens and your eyes—the more room between them means less strain on both nearsightedness and farsightedness alike! 

Generally speaking, 15 mm (or higher) is ideal for those wearing corrective eyeglasses while 8 mm should suffice otherwise; still though it can vary depending on personal preference as well as one’s specific optical needs, so always try before buying if possible! 

 Additionally, some brands offer ‘twist up’ eye cups which allow users with different distances between their eyes to adjust accordingly – this feature helps make sure everyone gets just the right amount of comfortability during use no matter what kind of optics they need. 

Finally, remember, not all optics are created equal either; cheaper varieties usually tend towards lower quality materials which won’t provide quite as much clarity when compared against pricier options made with better glass elements – so be prepared to spend more money if needed in order to get something truly good!  

Ultimately selecting suitable birdwatching gear comes down to being able to recognize one’s own needs first then deciding upon particular features afterward; specifically pay attention to things like weight size but also never forget about important details such as eye relief too because without proper spacing one might end up feeling uncomfortable even after investing, a good amount of money on good optics.

Understanding Exit Pupil 

Bird watching is a popular pastime enjoyed by millions of people around the world. It’s an activity that requires patience, keen eyesight and the right gear. One of the most important pieces of equipment bird watchers need is a good pair of binoculars.

When choosing binoculars, there are many factors to consider, including size, field of view and price range. However, one aspect that can be overlooked when selecting binoculars for bird watching is exit pupil diameter, or “exit pupil” for short.

The exit pupil is a measure used to determine how bright an image appears through your optics, and it has major implications on how well you will see birds at sunrise or sunset when they are most active. 

Below, we discuss what exit pupil means in more detail and provide tips on how to choose binoculars based on this metric, so you can have successful bird watching trips every time! 

What Is Exit Pupil? 

Exit pupil refers to the size (diameter) of light passing through your optics onto your eyes in millimeters (mm). Your eye has its own natural exit pupils—the opening in your iris measures about 2-4 mm in low light conditions such as dusk or dawn, when birds tend to become more active. 

Consequently, if you plan on doing a lot of birding at nighttime then it makes sense to get either 7×50 or 10×50 binos with large enough exit pupils (7 mm/10 mm respectively) which match up with those found naturally within our eye sockets—this will ensure maximum brightness and clarity, so you don’t miss out any possible sightings!  

Why Is It Important To Consider Exit Pupil When Buying Binoculars For Bird Watching? 

Exit pupil plays an important role in determining how much light passes through your optics onto your eyes, thereby enhancing visibility during twilight hours when birds tend to be more active than usual due not only does this help make images brighter but also helps improve contrast levels between objects making them easier to distinguish from their surroundings. 

This is something especially important when trying to pick out details like feathers patterns etcetera, which can sometimes prove difficult even under ideal lighting conditions! 

As such, having larger sized pupils equates better performance during these hours, thus increasing chances of spotting elusive species without having to worry about compromising image quality too much due to limited illumination available outside normal daylight times…so keep this in mind next time, opt to purchase some new bins specifically designed for wildlife observation purposes!  

A person holding a pair of binoculars while out birdwatching.
Image by Simon Kadula from Pixabay

Exploring Prism Types

As an avid bird watcher, you know that having a good pair of binoculars is essential when it comes to getting the most out of your hobby. With so many different options on the market, however, it can be difficult to decide which type will best suit your needs. 

One important factor in choosing a pair of binoculars is understanding prism types and how they work. In this blog post, we’ll explore prism types and discuss how they affect your viewing experience when it comes to bird watching. 

When selecting a pair of binoculars for bird watching, one key factor to consider is whether you want roof prisms or Porro prisms. Roof prisms are generally more expensive than Porro prisms because they require additional precision during manufacturing due to their complex shape and internal reflections needed for light transmission into both barrels simultaneously. 

They also offer better optical performance because all glass surfaces are coated with anti-reflective coating (which improves image brightness). This makes them great if you need high-quality optics but don’t want something too heavy or bulky (as some models come in smaller sizes). 

Porro prism models use two right-angled mirrors inside each barrel that cause light rays entering from one end (the objective lenses) to exit through the other end (the eyepiece lenses), producing an upright image at all magnifications without any distortion—unlike roof prism designs which may introduce some aberrations due to their construction process. 

Additionally, Porro prism designs tend to provide brighter images since there’s less loss of light from reflection at air/glass boundaries as well as lower levels of chromatic aberration compared with roof prisms; this makes them ideal for low-light conditions such as dawn or dusk when many species are active, but natural lighting isn’t optimal yet. 

Another thing worth considering when looking for a quality set of binoculars is what kind of lens coatings have been applied—multi-coated lenses usually perform better than single coated ones since there’s less loss from glare and scattering while providing higher contrast images overall thanks to its multiple layers allowing more light transmission across each element within its construction design. 

Additionally, multi-coating provides greater durability against wear & tear over time meaning longer lasting performance even under rough outdoor conditions like rainforest environments where humidity might pose problems otherwise resulting in permanent damage, so always opt for multi-coated lenses whenever possible!. Ultimately, choosing between roof and Porro, is a personal choice.

The Benefits of Coatings 

Bird watching is an enjoyable and rewarding hobby that has been enjoyed by nature enthusiasts for centuries. To get the full experience and spot birds in their natural habitats, you need a good set of binoculars.

When it comes to choosing equipment, coatings are an important factor to consider as they can significantly improve image quality and reduce eye strain. In this blog, we’ll discuss the different types of coatings available and why they are beneficial when selecting binoculars for bird watching. 

The most common type of coating used on binocular lenses is anti-reflective (AR) coating, which helps to reduce glare caused by light reflecting off the lens surfaces. This improves image quality while reducing eye strain as more light gets through the lenses into your eyes.

AR coatings also help protect against water, dust and dirt getting onto your lenses while out in the field observing birds in their natural environment, allowing you uninterrupted enjoyment without having to constantly clean or replace your optics due to damage caused by everyday use outdoors. 

Another type of coating often used on binoculars is known as multi-layer or dielectric coating, which adds even further protection from reflections as well as increasing color accuracy, making images appear brighter and clearer than with standard AR coatings alone – perfect for spotting hidden birds among branches!

Multi-layer coatings also improve contrast levels, so details like plumage patterns can be easily seen from long distances away – essential if you want a clear view of wildfowl flying over wetlands or hawks soaring high above mountainsides! 

Finally, some higher end models come with extra protective layers such as hydrophobic or oleophobic treatments that repel moisture droplets from fogging up optical surfaces during damp weather conditions – ensuring crystal clear views no matter what Mother Nature throws at you!

These advanced features increase cost but make all the difference when it comes down to viewing pleasure, so it’s worth considering them before parting with hard-earned cash!  

In conclusion, when shopping around for bird watching binoculars, make sure they have adequate anti-reflection (AR) coating plus additional layer protection like multilayer dielectric or hydrophobic/oleophobic treatments if budget allows; these will ensure maximum clarity out in the field.

Understanding Focus Systems

When it comes to bird watching, one of the most important pieces of equipment is binoculars. A good pair of binoculars will enable you to spot and identify birds from a distance, and even follow their movements as they fly away. But with so many different types on the market, how do you know which ones are best for your needs? One key factor in choosing binoculars is understanding focus systems.

Here’s what you need to know about focus systems when choosing binoculars for bird watching. First off, there are two main types of focus system used in modern optics: center-focus and individual-focus (or diopter) systems. The center-focus system uses a single knob located near the eyepiece that adjusts both lenses at once – this makes it easy to quickly fine tune the image without having to adjust each lens separately. 

Individual-focus or diopter systems use separate knobs or rings around each eyepiece that allow users to adjust only one lens at a time – this allows two people with different vision strengths (one far-sighted and one near-sighted) who share binoculars an easier way of setting up their individual vision preferences before beginning a session of bird watching. 

Another key aspect in selecting your ideal pair is size/weight ratio; bulky optics can be difficult to carry around all day while out exploring nature! While magnification power plays an essential role in providing quality images from afar, it must be taken into account alongside other factors such as eye relief (the amount of space between your eyes and the eyepieces), field of view angle (how wide an area can be seen through them), close focusing distance (how close you can get before losing sharpness).

All these features should come together harmoniously if possible! For those looking for general purpose/all-rounder models suitable for daytime viewing activities such as wildlife observation & birding trips, then 8×32/42 mm models are recommended.

These offer great image clarity throughout their entire range while still being light enough not weigh down too much during long hikes outdoors; but if hunting night animals like owls then higher powered 10x50mm designs would be better suited due its greater ability in low light situations! 

Lastly, make sure whichever model chosen fits comfortably within budget constraints – cheaper pairs may lack some features compared to more expensive alternatives, so always double check specifications against desired requirements first before buying anything new!,

A Guide to Size and Weight

When it comes to bird watching, binoculars are an essential tool. Not only do they help you get a better view of your feathered friends, but they can also make all the difference in terms of finding and identifying birds. 

To ensure that you’re getting the most out of your binoculars – both in terms of quality images and comfortable use – it’s important to select an appropriate pair based on size and weight. Here is a guide on how to choose the right binoculars for bird watching based on size and weight. 

Size Matters 

The first thing to consider when selecting a pair of binoculars is their size. Generally speaking, larger objective lenses (the glass lenses at the end furthest from your eyes) will give you brighter views with more detail than smaller ones; however, bigger isn’t always better when it comes to bird watching because larger optics tend to be heavier and bulkier than smaller models. 

For most types of birding activities (such as casual observations or travel) 8×42 or 10×42 binoculars are recommended due to their excellent balance between portability/weight ratio, image brightness/detail ratio, magnification power (8x or 10x), field-of-view width (420ft at 1,000 yards). 

Weight Matters Too 

In addition to size considerations, weight also plays an important role in selecting appropriate optics for birding activities, since heavily weighted optics can tire out arms quickly after long periods of observation or extended walks through nature trails. 

As such, lightweight models should be considered whenever possible; however, don’t sacrifice image quality over extremely light weights! For easy carrying during long hikes, 10x32mm models are excellent choices since they provide good performance while being relatively lightweight compared with other models with similar magnifications like 8X40 etc.  

Other Considerations                     

Although size & weight are two key factors when considering which type/model may fit best into one’s needs as far as birdwatching goes, there are other considerations worth looking into such as close focus distance capabilities & eye relief values among others which primarily depend upon individual preferences & budget, so please consider those accordingly before making any final decisions about which model may work best for one’s specific needs!

A pair of binoculars resting on a deck railing.
Photo by Elijah Mears on Unsplash

Tips on Water and Fog Proofing

Bird watching is a popular hobby enjoyed by millions of people around the world. Whether you are a beginner or an experienced birder, having good quality binoculars can improve your experience. 

If you plan to bird watch in areas that have water or fog, it’s essential to get binoculars that are waterproof and fog proof. Here are some tips on how to choose the right pair of binoculars for bird watching in wet and foggy conditions. 

1. Look for Waterproof Binoculars – The first step in selecting a pair of binoculars for bird watching is ensuring they are waterproofed against moisture and rainwater damage (or “waterproof”). This will help protect them from getting wet if there is heavy rainfall while out in the field looking at birds. 

A high-quality pair should be able to withstand short drops into water without becoming damaged, as well as light splashes or droplets coming off branches when walking through thick vegetation. 

2. Consider Fog-Proof Construction – While many binocular models come with some degree of waterproofing, not all feature fog-proof construction, which prevents condensation build up inside the lens barrels due to changes in temperature between warm air outdoors and cold air indoors (or vice versa). 

To ensure maximum visibility even in humid environments, it’s important that your chosen model features fully sealed seals between each lens barrel so no moisture enters the optics system during use – look out for this feature when searching online reviews or product descriptions before making your purchase decision! 

3. Look For Multi-Coated Optics – To get clear images even under low light conditions such as early morning hours or late evening dusk times, you need good quality optics with multiple layers of anti-reflective coatings applied onto every glass element within each individual eyepiece assembly – these multi coating lenses reduce glare while improving overall image brightness, so they appear sharper too! 

Be sure to check whether any manufacturer has included this technology before buying their product, otherwise you may find yourself disappointed with dimmer than expected visuals when trying out different species at dawn/dusk times! 

4. Check Your Budget – Last but not least, always consider budget constraints when choosing any type of optical device—binos included! Remember that higher prices usually mean better performance across most specs listed above; however, don’t go overboard, either—it’s easy enough today to find decent mid-range products from reputable manufacturers who offer great value without sacrificing, on quality.

Choosing Binoculars on a Budget

Are you looking to get into bird watching but don’t want to break the bank? Have no fear, finding binoculars for bird watching on a budget is absolutely possible. Whether you’re just starting out or a seasoned veteran, understanding what types of bins are available and how they differ in terms of quality and price can help ensure that you find the perfect pair. Here, we will discuss how to choose binoculars for bird watching on a budget! 

When it comes to choosing binoculars for birding, there are three primary factors that need to be considered: magnification, aperture size, and exit pupil. Magnification refers to the amount of detail visible when you look through your binos; higher magnification usually means more detail, but can also make it harder to keep your target in focus as it moves quickly across the sky. 

For most beginner-level birders who aren’t planning on tracking fast-moving birds or game animals, 8×42 and 10×42 models offer plenty of power without being too hard on the eyes. Aperture size refers directly to image brightness; larger lenses gather more light, which leads directly into better viewing conditions at dawn/dusk or during overcast days. 

Lastly, exit pupil measures how much light is actually transferred from lens surface area into your eye; higher numbers here lead directly into brighter images with greater levels of clarity even under poor lighting conditions—which makes them ideal for lowlight situations like early morning/late night outings where birds tend not be very active. 

In terms of price range, when shopping around for good quality optics suitable for birding purposes, expect something between $100-$250 depending upon features included (like waterproof housing) as well as brand name recognition (Nikon vs Bushnell). 

Generally speaking, though, if all other things are equal then lower priced models should still provide decent viewing performance—so long as they check off basic criteria such as sufficient magnification & aperture sizes mentioned above plus reasonable build quality (ruggedness). 

However, do bear in mind that any optics purchased within this budget range may lack some features like ED glass elements which help reduce chromatic aberration or special coatings designed specifically enhance transmission rates—in turn leading towards overall better views with less distortion/fringing along edges et cetera so consider these tradeoffs carefully before making any buying decisions! 

Overall, while spending more money isn’t always necessary when selecting proper equipment suitable enough for enjoying avian activities like identifying species from afar—it’s important to remember that certain compromises must, be made.

Why a Warranty Matters? 

Bird watching is an incredibly popular hobby that allows people to observe and appreciate nature in all of its beauty. Whether you’re just starting out or have been birding for years, one essential tool that you need is a good pair of binoculars. 

With hundreds of options on the market, it can be difficult to know which ones are best suited for your needs. Fortunately, there’s one factor that can help narrow down your choices: the warranty offered by the manufacturer. 

In this blog post, we’ll discuss why warranties are so important when it comes to choosing binoculars for bird watching and how they can help ensure you get the most out of your investment. 

When shopping around for binoculars, many people don’t even consider looking at the warranty offered by the manufacturer; however, this should be a major part of your decision-making process. 

A good quality pair of binoculars will cost several hundred dollars or more, depending on what features you want; therefore, investing in something with a solid warranty could potentially save you from having to buy another pair if yours were ever damaged or malfunctioned due to manufacturing defects. 

Most manufacturers offer warranties ranging from two years up to as much as 25 years depending on their policy, so make sure that whatever model you choose has at least some kind of coverage included – better yet look for those offering long-term warranties such as 10+ year policies since these tend to provide greater peace-of-mind over shorter terms ones (and often come with additional benefits like free repairs). 

Another thing worth considering when choosing binoculars is whether they have waterproof protection – especially if you plan on using them outdoors where they may get exposed to moisture/rain/weather elements etc. 

Many models now come equipped with rubberized ‘O-ring seals’ which help protect against water ingress while still allowing air flow through via internal channels (this helps keep lenses clean & clear). It’s also worth noting what type/level of shock resistance each model offers, since bumps and drops are common occurrences when handling optics – particularly during outdoor activities like birdwatching! 

If possible, try opting for models designed specifically with rugged environments in mind (as these tend to offer higher levels of protection than standard offerings) plus some brands even include lifetime accidental damage coverage too – which can really make all the difference if something unexpected happens during use!  

Finally, before buying any set, always check customer reviews online – not only do these give insights into actual user experiences.

A pair of binoculars resting on a table.
Photo by Erik Mclean on Unsplash

Choosing a Brand Name

Now that you know what to look for, let’s take a closer look at some of the best brand name binoculars on the market. Companies like Nikon, Bushnell, Vortex and Celestron all offer quality optics with impressive specifications that help ensure crisp images in all lighting conditions. Investing in an excellent pair of binoculars is a smart choice that will ensure hours of enjoyable viewing experiences!

1) Bushnell H2O Porro Prism Binocular: These binoculars offer a wide field of view, making them ideal for bird watching. They also have a large 42 mm objective lens, which allows for plenty of light gathering power. The 10x magnification is perfect for seeing small birds at a distance.

2) Nikon Monarch 5 8x42mm Binoculars: These binoculars offer an impressive 8x magnification and 42 mm objective lenses, making them perfect for long-distance viewing. They also have a wide field of view, making them great for tracking moving birds.

3) Celestron SkyMaster 15x70mm Binoculars: These binoculars are perfect for stargazing and bird watching alike. They offer a whopping 15x magnification, making them great for long-distance viewing. Additionally, their 70 mm objective lenses allow them to gather plenty of light, making them ideal for use in low-light conditions such as dawn or dusk.

4) Vortex Optics Diamondback Roof Prism Binoculars 10×42: These binoculars are perfect for those who want high-quality optics in a compact package. They offer 10x magnification and 42 mm objective lenses, making them great for long-distance viewing while still being small enough to easily carry with you on hikes or other outdoor activities.

Final Thoughts

In conclusion, choosing binoculars for bird watching can be a daunting task. However, with the right research and knowledge of what to look for when selecting optics for this purpose, it can be an enjoyable and rewarding experience. 

It is important to consider factors such as weight, magnification, field of view, prism type and coating quality before making the final decision on what type of binoculars are best suited for your needs.

Additionally, looking at customer reviews and talking with experienced birders can help you make an informed choice. With the right pair of binoculars in hand, you will be able to enjoy hours upon hours of observing birds in their natural environment!

Related Post: Best Binocular Harness Strap for Birding (2022)


  • Vince S

    Meet Vince, the passionate founder and author of Learn Bird Watching, boasting 30 years of birding experience. With an unwavering mission to empower fellow bird enthusiasts, Vince shares invaluable wisdom and guidance. As a dedicated moderator and contributor to Quora's Bird Watchers' Club, he actively engages with the birding community, where his insightful answers have garnered over 440,000 views and over 2,670 upvotes. Whether you're a budding birder or a seasoned avian aficionado, his wealth of knowledge is at your service.