barn swallow

14 Birds That Build Mud Nests 2023 (The Complete Guide!)

Get ready to dive into the world of mud-slinging avian architects! Mud nests, the humble abodes of some of the most fascinating bird species on the planet, are more than just globs of dirt and muck – they’re masterpieces of engineering and survival.

In this blog post, we’re going to explore the 14 birds that build mud nests, from their construction to their importance for bird species. So grab your hardhat and let’s get building!

Pros and Cons of Mud Nest Building

Building a mud nest is no small feat – it’s a true testament to a bird’s resilience and adaptability. From withstanding harsh weather conditions to warding off predators, mud nests provide a safe haven for avian families to grow and thrive.

But with great reward comes great effort, and mud nest building is no exception. Birds must contend with the challenges of finding suitable mud sources, molding and shaping the mud into a sturdy structure, and protecting their nest from the elements and potential threats.

However, these challenges are no match for the resourcefulness and determination of our feathered friends. They have evolved to use their beaks, feet, and even feathers to craft intricate mud nests that can withstand the test of time.

So let’s dive into the fascinating world of mud nest benefits and challenges and discover how birds overcome them with their creative problem-solving skills.

Image by Carole from Pixabay

Material Used for Building a Mud Nest

Birds are master builders, using their surroundings to construct homes that are both functional and beautiful. When it comes to mud nests, these avian architects don’t mess around. Mud is a versatile material that can be found in many different environments, making it the perfect building block for these feathered builders.

But not all mud is created equal – some birds prefer a specific type of mud for their nests, while others are more flexible. For example, the African golden weaver bird is known for its intricate and beautiful mud nests, which are constructed using mud mixed with grass and other plant materials.

These nests can take weeks to build and are suspended from trees, providing safety and protection for the weaver bird and it’s young. In contrast, the cliff swallow prefers to use mud mixed with saliva to construct its cup-shaped nests, which are built against the walls of cliffs or buildings.

These nests are incredibly strong and durable, able to withstand the harsh winds and rain of the swallow’s environment. Other birds, like the American robin, use mud to reinforce their nests and make them more secure. They will mix mud with twigs, grass, and other materials to create a sturdy and comfortable home for their young.

From the intricate weavings of the African golden weaver bird to the sturdy mud-and-twig structures of the American robin, mud nests are a testament to the ingenuity and creativity of the bird species that build them.

These avian architects have mastered the art of using mud to create functional and beautiful homes that provide safety and protection for their young.

How Birds Build Mud Nests?

Get ready to witness some avian artistry at work! When it comes to building mud nests, birds are nothing short of master craftsmen, using their beaks, feet, and even their own saliva to create intricate and sturdy structures that can withstand the elements. First, the bird typically selects a suitable location for its nest, such as the side of a cliff, a tree branch, or the eaves of a building.

Then, it begins the process of gathering materials – usually a mixture of mud, twigs, grass, and other organic matter. With its beak, the bird carefully molds the mud into the desired shape, using its feet to compact the materials and add stability.

But that’s not all – some bird species take their nest-building skills to the next level by using their own saliva to bind the materials together. That’s right – a bird’s spit can actually act as a natural glue, helping to hold the nest together and create a waterproof barrier that keeps the eggs and chicks inside safe and dry.

As the nest takes shape, the bird will continue to add more layers of materials, carefully shaping and sculpting the structure to fit its needs. Some species even create multiple chambers within their nests, allowing them to lay eggs and raise their young in separate compartments.

And let’s not forget about the intricate details – many bird species add finishing touches to their mud nests, such as bits of moss, feathers, and even discarded snake skins, to make them more comfortable and camouflaged.

In the end, a bird’s mud nest is not just a simple structure, but a true work of art, reflecting the creativity, ingenuity, and adaptability of these incredible creatures. So the next time you spot a mud nest perched high in a tree or nestled against a cliff, take a moment to marvel at the avian architect who built it.

Video by Jesus Cambronero from Pexels:

Birds That Build Mud Nests

Purple Martin

purple martin
Image by jnelson from Pixabay

Purple Martins are migratory birds that come to North America every year during the springtime. They live near water so that they can catch fish, and other aquatic creatures for food. Purple Martins will start creating their nests in the summer.

These birds also have an unusual way of building their nests! Purple Martins will build their nests by using mud, grasses, sticks, feathers and even pieces of plastic to construct the shape of the nest. These nests are often built in clusters called colonies, which have up to 100 different nests!

  • Length: 7.5″- 8.0″ in.
  • Weight: 1.6-2.1 oz (45-60 g)
  • Range: North America, Central America, and the Caribbean islands.
  • Habitat:  Backyards, farmlands, rivers, lakes, marshes, or ponds.
  • Diet: Dragonflies, mosquitoes, flies, moths, beetles, wasps and ants.
  • Number of Broods: 1-2 broods.
  • Clutch size: 4 – 6 eggs.
  • Incubation period: 16 days.

Related: How to Attract the Purple Martin to your yard?

House Martin

House Martin
Image by Sue Rickhuss from Pixabay

House Martins are migratory birds that spend the winter in warmer climates and fly back to their summer homes when spring arrives. These small birds like to build nests on ledges, porch ceilings, or any other high surface. They can use mud from wet soil, or mosses found near water sources as a building material for their nest.

House Martin adults will gather twigs, grasses, feathers and downy materials while flying around during the early morning hours of each day. Nests are often built in sheltered areas such as buildings, sheds or trees, and may be reused from year to year.

  • Length: 5.0″ in.(12.7 cm)
  • Weight: 18 g (0.65 oz)
  • Range: Native to Eurasia and Africa (but have also been introduced in North America, Australia, New Zealand, South America.)
  • Habitat: Urban areas, open fields.
  • Diet: Insects and other invertebrates.
  • Number of Broods: 2 – 3 broods.
  • Clutch size: 4 – 5 eggs.
  • Incubation period: 14-16 days.

Black-billed Magpie

Black-billed Magpie
Image by Mohan Nannapaneni from Pixabay

The black-billed magpie is a common bird of North America, and they are most often found in the eastern half of the continent. The magpies live in forests, towns, and even parks; as long as there is an ample supply of food nearby. These beautiful birds have many unique qualities, but one of the most interesting is how they use dirt to make a home for themselves and their young.

A black-billed magpie’s nest is made from mud, sticks, mosses, and pine needles that they find on the ground. Nests can be found in various places, such as in trees or on the ground.

  • Length: 18″ – 24″ in.
  • Weight: 165–215 grams (5.8–7.6 oz)
  • Range: Southern Canada, Alaska, and the northwestern United States.
  • Habitat: Open country with scattered trees or other tall vegetation such as shrubs.
  • Diet: Insects, berries, but also some seeds and grains.
  • Number of Broods: 1 Brood.
  • Clutch size: 6 – 7 eggs.
  • Incubation period: 16 -21 days.

Related: How to Attract Magpies to your Garden? (In 4 Easy Steps!)

Eastern Phoebe

Eastern Phoebe
Image by ronin2435 from Pixabay

The Eastern Phoebe is a small bird that typically lives in eastern North America during the spring through fall months (mostly nesting from April to September).  The female Eastern Phoebe builds the nest out of mud on the ground, or tree limbs, and creates it as a cylindrical shape with an opening at the top for her eggs to enter.

She can be seen gliding around collecting materials such as leaves, grass, moss and clay for lining. The male helps out by catching insects to feed his mate while she gathers the building materials for their home. 

  • Length: 6″ – 7″ in.
  • Weight: 0.5-0.7 oz (14-20 g)
  • Range: United States, Canada, and Mexico.
  • Habitat: Typically near water sources such as rivers and lakes.
  • Diet: Insects such as flies, beetles, ants and bees as well as spiders and snails.
  • Number of Broods: 2 Broods.
  • Clutch size: 2 – 6 eggs.
  • Incubation period: 16 days.

Rufous Hornero

rufous hornero
Image by elmonje1881 from Pixabay

The Rufous Hornero is a bird found in Central and South America. The name “Rufous” comes from the Latin word for reddish-brown, which describes its plumage coloration. The Rufous Hornero is often seen as it builds its nest by sticking together small pieces of mud with twigs to form an enclosed bowl shape.

The birds make their nests in trees or shrubs, on cliff ledges, or in low vegetation near water sources. In addition to nesting sites near water sources, the Rufous Hornero also prefers habitats with plenty of grasses and thickets which provide shelter from predators.

  • Length: 7″ – 8″ in.
  • Weight: 1–2.0oz (30 – 57.5 g)
  • Range: Southeastern Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and northeastern Argentina.
  • Habitat: Grasslands, and agricultural areas where there are scattered trees or shrubs.
  • Diet: Figs, grapes, bananas, oranges and mangos, but also will eat some insects like beetles or wasps.
  • Number of Broods: 2 Broods.
  • Clutch size: 3 – 4 eggs.
  • Incubation period: 15 – 18 days.

Cliff Swallow

Cliff Swallow
Image by TootSweetCarole from Pixabay

Cliff swallows are a North American bird that uses mud to build their nests on cliffs, bridges, or buildings. The nest has an outer layer of mud for protection from the weather and predators. It also protects eggs and chicks inside the nest by making it hard for animals to reach them. The inside of the nest is lined with feathers, grasses, leaves, rootlets, horsehair-like material or, straws.

They start building in April and May with their nests being completed by July or August.  Cliff swallows build their nests by scooping up mud and flying to a place on the ground where they can pour it out. The birds form circular walls around themselves as they sit in the center of the mound, which is eventually covered with feathers and grass for insulation. 

  • Length: 5.1″ in.
  • Weight: 0.7-1.2 oz (19.8-34.0 g)
  • Range: North America, South America, and Eurasia.
  • Habitat: Cliff habitats, usually close to water. 
  • Diet:  Mainly eat insects, but they also will occasionally eat berries or other fruit.
  • Number of Broods: 1 – 2 Broods.
  • Clutch size: 1 – 6 eggs.
  • Incubation period: 12 – 17 days.

Barn Swallow

Barn Swallow
Image by Susanne Edele from Pixabay

Barn Swallows, members of the Hirundinidae family, are one of the most common birds in North America. They live primarily in marshes and other wet areas that provide food for them to eat and a place to build their nests.  Barn swallows build their nests by scooping up wet, moist mud from the ground, and molding it into a bowl-shaped nest.

Barn swallows are not picky when it comes to building materials; they will gather anything from twigs and leaves to small rocks and pieces of plastic to help strengthen the nest. The birds use these found objects in order to create an effective barrier against the wind and rain, but most importantly against predators. This whole process can take anywhere from 3-4 days for them to finish! 

  • Length: 6.0″ – 7.5″ in.
  • Weight: 0.5-0.7 oz (14.1-19.8 g)
  • Range: United States, Central America, and Canada as well as portions of northern South America.
  • Habitat: Large forests, residential areas, golf courses, airports, farms, lakes with tall trees and plenty of open space.
  • Diet: Insects and small animals such as frogs and lizards.
  • Number of Broods: 1 – 2 Broods.
  • Clutch size: 3 – 5 eggs.
  • Incubation period: 13 – 17 days.

Related: How to Attract Swallows to my yard?

Cave Swallow

Cave swallows, are small birds that use the rock walls of caves to create nests. The Eastern North American range for these animals is an area that spans from Alabama to New York, with no known sightings west of the Mississippi River. Cave swallows have been seen building nests with mud. The female bird will form a cup-shaped nest with mud in which to lay her eggs and incubate them.

This is done by taking up earth, and bat guano in the bill, and slowly letting it fall from the bill while holding onto some of it, and at the same time molding it into shape. They will also use other materials like feathers or bits of grass stems, or pieces of bark.

  • Length: 4.75″ – 5.5″ in.
  • Weight: 0.67 oz. (19 g.)
  • Range: East Texas to Florida, and north into the southern Appalachian Mountains. It has also been spotted as far west as Nebraska. 
  • Habitat: Rock ledges of cliff faces or under overhangs near caves.
  • Diet: Mayflies, stoneflies, caddis flies, dragonflies, damselflies, mosquitoes, spiders, beetles, and crickets. 
  • Number of Broods: 1 – 2 Broods.
  • Clutch size: 1 – 5 eggs.
  • Incubation period: 15 – 18 days.

American Flamingo

American Flamingo
Photo by Trac Vu on Unsplash

The American Flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) is a species of flamingo that breeds in North and South America. The American Flamingo is the only flamingo that naturally occurs in the Western Hemisphere. Its range extends from the Gulf Coast of the United States to Peru, and it also breeds on some Caribbean islands. The American Flamingo is a wetland bird and prefers brackish or salty water.

It often feeds in lagoons, mudflats, and shallow lakes. The American Flamingo feed primarily on algae and crustaceans. They use their long bills to filter food from the water. Nesting usually occurs in colonies near bodies of water. The American Flamingo builds its nest out of mud collected from the bottom of lakes or ponds.

  • Length: 5 ft (1.5 m)
  • Weight: 4-8 lbs. (1.8-3.6 kg)
  • Range: The range of the American flamingo includes the Caribbean, coastal Colombia, Venezuela, and Galápagos Islands.
  • Habitat: They inhabit salt flats, lagoons, and mudflats.
  • Diet: Brine shrimp, algae, crustaceans, mollusks, and insects.
  • Number of Broods: 1 to 2.
  • Clutch size: 1 large egg.
  • Incubation period: 28 days.

Related: 25 Facts About Flamingos That Will Blow Your Mind!


The Apostlebird is a member of the genus Struthidea in the family Corcoracidae. It is endemic to Australia, where it occurs in all states except Tasmania. It is found in a wide range of habitats, including dry open woodlands, mallee scrubland, and heathland. Its diet consists mainly of insects and other invertebrates.

The Apostlebird is mostly dark gray, with long black feathers of its head and neck slightly tinged with green. The gray feathers on its mane, breast and wings are mixed with paler gray and white, while its wings are brown. Its legs and bill are black, and its wings, legs and eyes are brown or white.

The Apostlebird nests in small colonies in nests made from mud and grasses located in tree forks, usually about 24 feet off the ground. The female bird lays 3-5 pale bluish-white eggs per clutch, which hatch after around two weeks.

  • Length: 13 in. (33 cm)
  • Weight: 3.9-4.6 oz. (110-130 g)
  • Range: They are found in woodlands throughout Australia. Its range extends from northern Queensland to southern Victoria, and it is also found on Tasmania.
  • Habitat: They can be seen in both open woodlands and rainforests. It prefers areas with dense understory vegetation, such as tree ferns.
  • Diet: Feeds on insects and other small invertebrates.
  • Number of Broods: Two broods per season.
  • Clutch size: 2-5 eggs.
  • Incubation period: 18-19 days.

Black Phoebe

The Black Phoebe is a small passerine bird in the tyrant flycatcher family. It breeds from British Columbia and Alberta south through the western United States to northern Mexico. It is a permanent resident in most of its range, although some birds may move north or south along the coast during the non-breeding season.

The Black Phoebe typically nests in mud on cliffs or buildings, often near water. The Black Phoebe has a black body with white underparts and a long, black tail. It has a black bill, legs, and feet with brown eyes. The male and female phoebe look exactly the same.

The Black Phoebe is about 6 inches long and weighs about 1 ounce. The Black Phoebe’s diet consists mostly of insects, which it catches in midair or picks off of surfaces with its bill.

  • Length: 6.0-7.0″ in. (15-18 cm)
  • Weight: 0.7 oz (20 g)
  • Range: It has a distribution range from central California and southern Arizona south through Mexico to northern Venezuela.
  • Habitat: This bird’s habitat is near freshwater streams, lakes or marshes.
  • Diet:  They feed on insects, spiders, and other small invertebrates.
  • Number of Broods: 2 broods per season.
  • Clutch size: 1-6 eggs.
  • Incubation period: 15-18 days.


A Hamerkop foraging in a pond.
Image by Karel Joubert from Pixabay

Hamerkops are easily recognizable by their unique appearance and behaviors. These brown wading birds are found throughout Africa, Madagascar, and Arabia. Their habitat generally consists of areas near water, such as marshes or wetlands.

Hamerkops primarily eat insects, but will also consume small reptiles, amphibians, and mammals. An interesting behavior of hamerkops is their nesting habits. Rather than building a typical nest in a tree or bush, hamerkops build their nests entirely out of mud.

The female hamerkop will gather sticks and other materials to create a frame for the mud nest. Once the frame is complete, she will then add several layers of wet mud to the outside of the nest until it is sturdy and well-built.

  • Length: 19-20 in. (48.3 to 50.8 cm)
  • Weight: 14.6 to 15.2 oz. (415 to 430 g)
  • Range: Found throughout Africa, Madagascar, and Arabia.
  • Habitat: Habitats near water, such as marshes and wetlands, make up a significant portion of a habitat type.
  • Diet: Small reptiles, amphibians, and mammals.
  • Number of Broods: 1 brood per season.
  • Clutch size: 3-9 eggs
  • Incubation period: 28-30 days.

Spotted Morning Thrush

The Spotted Morning Thrush also known as the “Spotted Palm Thrush” is a small brown bird with a rufous tail. They are found in Somalia, Kenya, Ethiopia, Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda. It feeds on insects and does its nesting in mud. The Spotted Morning Thrush is a member of the thrush family. It is about 15 cm long and weighs 20-30 grams.

The upperparts are brownish with dark streaks, while the underparts are whitish with dark spots. The tail is rufous with white tips. There are two black stripes on the face, one running through the eye and the other from the base of the bill to the ear coverts.

The Spotted Morning Thrush is found in woodlands and forests at altitudes of up to 3000 meters. Its diet consists mainly of insects, which it finds by searching through leaf litter on the ground.

  • Length: 5.9″ in. (15 cm)
  • Weight: 0.7-1.1 oz. (20-30 g)
  • Range: Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda.
  • Habitat: The bird is found in woodlands and forests.
  • Diet: Mainly feeds on insects and also fruits.
  • Number of Broods: 1-2 broods per season.
  • Clutch size: 2 or 3 eggs.
  • Incubation period: 12-15 days.

White-winged Chough

The black-crow sized White-winged Chough is a member of the Corvid family. It has a black head, neck and breast with white underparts. The wings of these birds are predominantly black, with bars of white. The tail is long and black with white tips. The legs and bill are also black. The sexes are similar in plumage, but the female is usually smaller than the male.

The White-winged Chough inhabits open woodlands, forests and heathlands in eastern Australia. It feeds mainly on insects but will also eat berries, fruits and seeds.

The White-winged Chough nests in tree hollows, crevices in rocks or cliffs, or sometimes in mud nests built by other birds such as swallows. Up to five cream-colored eggs with brown speckles are laid, which hatch after about three weeks.

  • Length: 18-20″ in. (45.7-50.8 cm)
  • Weight: 9.7-15.0 oz (277–422 g)
  • Range: Southern and Eastern Australia.
  • Habitat: Inhabits open woodlands, forests and heathlands.
  • Diet: Insects but will also eat berries, fruits and seeds.
  • Number of Broods: 1 to 2 broods per season.
  • Clutch size: 3-5 eggs.
  • Incubation period: 19 days.

Frequently Asked Questions

Do sparrows build mud nests?

The sparrows use nearby dirt, grass, moss, leaves or bark to make a bowl-shaped structure. Sparrows will than line their nests with soft fibers, hair or feathers for extra insulation from harsh weather conditions.

Where do phoebes nest?

Phoebes nest in cavities such as old woodpecker holes, or abandoned buildings like barns, under overhangs, or sheds, but also choose to nest sites that humans provide for them such as nest boxes.

What month do birds lay eggs?

The time of year when backyard birds lay eggs is largely dependent on the type of bird. Some birds will start to lay eggs in February and others will wait until late spring or early summer. For example, robins typically lay their first egg in April, while cardinals can start as early as March or as late as May.

Do robins use mud in their nests?

Do Robins use mud in their nests? Robins are well known for the beautiful nest they build out of twigs and grasses. They are also well known for using mud to line the bottom of their nest, creating a more comfortable environment for themselves and their eggs. 

How do birds make mud nests?

A bird typically starts by looking for mud or wet dirt near a water source, such as an open puddle or stream. They then take their beak to create an indentation in the ground before dipping it into the water and gathering some of it on their beak to mold into tiny balls which they carry over to their nest site and place them around its edge. They then use their beak to push and flatten the mud until it takes a rough form.

Related Post: How Fast Can A Bird Build A Nest? The Race Against Time!


  • Vince S

    Meet Vince, the passionate founder of Learn Bird Watching, boasting 30 years of birding experience. With an unwavering mission to empower fellow bird enthusiasts, Vince shares invaluable wisdom and guidance. Whether you're a budding birder or a seasoned avian aficionado, his wealth of knowledge is at your service. Reach out for expert insights and support at, and embark on a rewarding journey in the world of birds.